Steam Boiler


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Steam Boiler

When we examine the history of the steam boiler, we can see that people have been using steam for various purposes from the past to the present, especially with the Industrial Revolution. The main reasons for using steam are its environmental friendliness and low cost. With these advantages, it has been widely preferred in many fields, especially in industrial areas, from the past to the present.

What is a Steam Boiler?

Steam boilers have been produced in various types according to the needs. Steam boilers have been classified according to their usage areas and purposes. There are high-pressure steam boilers with large capacities. The types of steam boilers can be listed as follows:

Steam boilers according to the type of fuel:

Steam boilers according to the type of tubes:

Choosing the right steam boiler according to operational needs is crucial.

Steam Boilers According to Fuel Type

One of the steam boiler types commonly preferred in industrial areas is the three-pass Scotch-type steam boiler. Its areas of use include steam turbines, food industry, paper industry, refineries, fertilizer industry, chemical processes, and steam heating systems. Scotch-type steam boilers have a large water volume. Therefore, they provide the required steam quickly. These boilers are designed to be suitable for solid fuel, liquid fuel, gas fuel, and biogas usage. They have high efficiency. With the addition of an economizer, boiler efficiency of up to 95% can be achieved. They can easily meet the requirements of sudden steam demand. Scotch-type steam boilers have a large evaporation volume.

Another type of steam boiler is the D-type semi-cylindrical steam boiler, which is preferred for businesses operating with solid fuel.

The lower parts of these boiler types are wide and open. This feature minimizes contact with water. However, there is also significant heat loss in the use of liquid and gas fuels in these boiler types. Grates can be installed on the bottom part of D-type semi-cylindrical steam boilers to address heat loss. They have a large combustion chamber, providing advantages, especially in the use of solid fuel. Therefore, they are preferred steam boiler types.

Another type of steam boiler is the secondary air-staged steam boiler. Solid fuel is used in secondary air-staged steam boilers. Lignite coals are commonly preferred as solid fuel. Lignite coals are a type of fuel that rapidly converts into gas and contains combustible material. Fast gasification can be achieved in steam boilers. Secondary air-staged steam boilers benefit much more from the heat potential. Efficiency is increased by utilizing the heat carried by the unburned carbon particles.

Steam Boilers According to Tube Type

Steam boilers are also classified according to the tube type. They are categorized as fire-tube and water-tube boilers.

Fire-Tube Boilers

Fire-tube steam boilers have various advantageous features. These advantageous features include:

For a steam boiler to operate, it may take a long time for the required water to rise to the desired pressure. Fire-tube and water-tube boiler types are widely used boiler types worldwide. The working principle of these boiler types involves the passage of hot flue gases through the tubes installed in the boiler, and heat transfer occurs to the water. Thus, steam production is achieved. Another type of steam boiler is the coil-type boiler. It produces steam by absorbing energy with a burner filled with oil or gas. Water tube boilers are usually steam generator systems with a steam pressure

Smoke Tube Boiler

Smoke tube boilers have advantages such as being compact in construction, being able to meet the required fluctuations in steam demand, and being cost-effective.

Usage Areas of Steam Boilers

Steam boilers have different applications in various industries. Depending on the usage, there are industrial, stationary, locomotive, and textile steam boilers. Steam boilers are also classified as high-pressure and supercritical boilers based on their pressure levels. They are used in apartment buildings, shopping centers, food industry, construction materials industry, central heating systems, rubber production systems, paper industry, wood shaping systems, fertilizer industry, steam heating systems, petrochemical industry, refineries, sterilization systems, pharmaceutical industry, and thermal power plants.

Steam boilers are preferred due to their advantageous features, such as being an ideal heat carrier, the ability to carry more heat with small-sized tubes, being environmentally friendly, providing energy efficiency, having low cost, enabling precise temperature control, reducing the risk of corrosion, minimizing heat losses, facilitating easy heat transfer with small-diameter tubes, having low investment costs, requiring less insulation, having a suitable installation cost, not having the ability to ignite steam, and being a sterile fluid.


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